這個世界有太多值得去拍攝的主題,也許我們都落入相同的侷限裡。
這篇文章裡舉出多位我個人欣賞的攝影師,並不是他們不優秀,反之是在該類型裡優秀的攝影師。
而是在這些主題之(外),在這些人之(後)我們還能再拍些什麼呢?

攝影的陳腔濫調,這篇是來自Martin Parr文章.

Photographic Cliches by Martin Parr(轉貼)

http://www.martinparr.com/2011/photographic-cliches/

translated by 任悅

藝術和紀實攝影師常常自我感覺良好,覺得他們比其他一些攝影師,比如拍家庭快照的以及業餘攝影師更高人一等。不過,經過我這三四十年的觀察,我的結論是,我們對自己所拍攝的東西太過自信了。

 

這個結論也包括我自己在內,儘管我對自己想要探索的領域無不經過深思熟慮,但也仍然常常會發現自己也掉進了以下的陳詞濫調提綱裡。我非常關注那些執掌我們工作的基本法則,並且也想嘗試來總結一下現今控制我們當代攝影實踐的一些主要流派。這些核心主題和路徑也在隨著新攝影師的湧入,隨著他們對攝影文化和語言的改造而不斷改變。我渴望看到新的作品以及這方面的新書、雜誌和展覽。但大多數作品我看到的都是普通的,隨大流的。所以,我在Brighton攝影雙年展的時候,選擇作品的標準就是看其能否從一個新鮮的角度切入選題。

 

下面就讓我來試著整理一下我能找到的一些基本脈路:

Chicago Board of Trade (1997) 

1.高角度俯瞰人類(the above ground landscape with people)

 

這是最近一個流行,主要是從 Gursky 那裡發展出來。從一個高視點的地方框取人,把他們置於(淹沒在)城市也可能是郊區的景觀之中。

 

#Andreas Gursky

http://whitecube.com/artists/andreas_gursky/

Stephen-Shore-Fifth-and-Broadway-Eureka-California-September-2-1974-   

2. 彎曲的路燈

 

這個手法美國比較常見,他們那裡這種路燈很多。這是典型的城市風景,但正在變得沒落。這種流派可以追溯到 Stephen Shore 和其他一些人身上。

#Stephen Shore

http://www.303gallery.com/artists/stephen_shore/

 

Nan-Goldin-Nan-and-Brian-in-bed-NYC.-1983-Cibachrome-20x24-inches-copy  

 

3.個人日記

 

Nan Goldin的《性依賴的敘事曲》在這方面算是開了先河,隨後還有 Larry Clark 以及 Ed van der Elsken 這些人跟進。

 

#Nan Goldin http://www.artnet.com/artists/nan-goldin/

#Larry Clark http://larryclark.com/

#Ed van der Elsken http://www.edvanderelsken.nl/

 

 

 

 

 

 

4. 懷舊的目光(The Nostalgic Gaze )

 

攝影師樂於拍攝工廠、商店、俱樂部或者其他一些要關閉的機構場所。我們總是歡迎那些瀕臨消失的景觀和人。

 

5. 怪異的以及非常視覺化的場景(the quirky and visually strong setting)

 

一提到紀實攝影這個概念,我們似乎更容易看到一個關於馬戲團的項目而不是一個加油站的報導。其根本原因是攝影師願意拍攝那些有著古怪視覺的場景。我們就有著大量這類題材的報導,比如精神病院和動物醫院。

 

6. 街頭(the street)

 

最近幾年街頭攝影也被當代潮流捲入,攝影師製造出許多富有幽默的場景,並且很自然地轉向了彩色。在英國,我們的傳統其實是在海灘拍攝,但最近幾年也開始沒落,因為越來越難拍了,你不留神就被控偷窺。

 

daidomoriyama_misawa_1   

7. 黑白的粗顆粒照片(The black and white grainy photo)

 

要是你認同,森山大道就是這個流派的教父。他把 Andy Warhol 和 William Klein 的影像表現糅合而形成了這種具有突破性的攝影語言。所拍攝的主題也是把城市景觀和個人情感結合。

#森山大道 http://www.moriyamadaido.com/

tina-barney-the-brocade-walls-2004-c-print-courtesy-the-artist-and-janet-borden-inc-new-york    

8. 新貴(the new rich)

 

設想一下,這種流派就好比 Tina Barney 以及其他那些去耶魯讀書的有錢人家的孩子,學成歸來之後都把相機對準了自己的家庭。通常都是用大畫幅相機拍攝,而且經常有把衣服脫掉的場景。

#Tina Barney http://artblart.com/tag/tina-barney-the-ancestor/

 

cartier_h  

9. 我是一個詩人(i am a poet)

 

這可能是最具冒險性的一個流派,因為它要把浮華去掉。這種影像可以在 Eggleston 和 Rinko Kawauchi 那裡找到根基。

#WILLIAM EGGLESTON http://www.egglestontrust.com/ 

http://erickimphotography.com/blog/2013/04/01/10-lessons-william-eggleston-has-taught-me-about-street-photography/

# Rinko Kawauchi 川內倫子 http://www.rinkokawauchi.com/main/index.html

 

 

Bernd-Hilla-Becher-01  

10 現代類型學(the modern typology)

 

Becher夫婦和杜塞爾多夫學派對我們拍攝地貌和自然有巨大的影響,他的學生的成功又繼續推波助瀾。很多可以看做B流派的Becher的學生們用類型學的方法拍攝那些摧毀的建築、海邊小屋等任何常見的景觀。

#Bernhard & Hilla Becher http://www.artnet.com/artists/bernd-and-hilla-becher/

 

Crewdson_OK_30_07_1000a9970   

11.擺拍的照片

 

現在在街頭拍攝太難了,攝影師又有著控制被攝對象的願望,這種擺拍照片盛行一時。Gregory Crewdson 以他的好萊塢風格的大片佈景拍攝手法引領潮流。

#Gregory Crewdson

http://artblart.com/tag/gregory-crewdson-untitled-blue-period/

  

 

 

Rineke-Dijkstra_1-640  

 

12 標準照(the formal portrait)

 

曾經是我們的一個傳統,最近又重新流行起來,像 Reneke Dijsktra 和 Thomas Ruff 這些人拍肖像的方法,禁止微笑,並且需要一種重複出現的結構,拍的時候一定要有三腳架。

# Reneke Dijsktra http://www.tate.org.uk/art/artists/rineke-dijkstra-2666

#Thomas Ruff http://ellecain.blogspot.tw/2013/11/thomas-ruff-portraits.html http://www.artnet.com/artists/thomas-ruff/

 

13. 寬寬的風景(the long landscape)

 

寬幅是最近拍風景的時尚畫幅,冰川海灣則是用這種手法的理想被攝對象。

 

這個名單我還可以再列舉下去,不過我覺得你可能已經捕捉到了我要說的要義。我知道,很多人都會說:“這也太冷嘲熱諷了吧。”但很多在這個名單之內的作品我自己也很喜歡,事實上,所有我喜歡的作品都能夠分門別類到這個列表。我認為,這個話題的關鍵是,我們要對自己拍攝的主題細心考慮。我在看學生的作品集的時候通常都會說這些話,但人們卻總是看著我,彷彿在說:“你怎麼敢質疑我拍的東西。”

 

但假使我們仔細看看周遭這個變化的世界,那裡似乎有太多的主題是我們不去拍攝的,因為我總是需要去回應一些所謂的流派和熟悉的表達從而讓我們有創作的信心。我們希望通過這些題材增加影像的力量,但正如它可以是一種解放,同時也可能是一種束縛。



::Original text in English::

 

The Fine Art and Documentary photographers take great pride in thinking themselves superior to the other main genres of photography, such as the family snap shooter or the amateur photographer, as personified by camera club imagery. However, after 30/40 years of viewing our work, I have come to the conclusion that we too are fairly predictable in what we photograph.

I include myself in this, and have been very careful to try and think of new territories to explore, but recognise that very often I also indulge in the list outlined below. I am aware of the basic rules, which dominate our work, and want to now attempt to group some of the more dominant strands of contemporary practice.

This core subject matter and approach is also constantly shifting and changing as new photographers arrive and have an impact on our accumulative photographic culture and language. I have a rapacious desire to look at new work and do this through books, magazines, and of course exhibitions. Most of the work I see is generic; in so far I can read the influences. It is when the inspiration and lineage is not clear that my attention is alerted. I used this as a guiding principal for the recent curating of the Brighton Photo Biennial, and made freshness of approach to the subject matter a major criteria for selection.

Let me try and outline the basic genres that can be found.

1. The above ground landscape with people.

This is a relatively recent development with the major influence of Gursky, being the starting point. You take a high vantage and place people within the frame setting them in a larger urban or even rural landscape.

2. The bent lamppost.

You see this a lot in the USA, where they are blessed with many bent lampposts. The scene is urban and generally quite run down. This can be traced back to Stephen Shore amongst others.

3. The personal diary.

Nan Goldin gave this genre a major boost with the famous “ Ballad of Sexual Dependency ” project, but there are predecessors with the likes Larry Clarke and Ed van der Elsken.

4. The Nostalgic gaze.

Photographers love to shoot a factory, a shop, a club or some institution that is about to close. We, of course, welcome and praise the sense of community that is threatened.

5. The quirky and visually strong setting.

In terms of documentary we are much more likely to see a project done on a circus than say, a petrol station. The simple reason is that photographers love shooting situations where there is an inherent visual quirk. So we see plenty of this type of subject such as mental hospitals and animal clinics.

6. The Street.

Street photography has evolved in recent years, with many more humourous scenarios now making the edit, and of course the shift to colour. In Britain we also have the great tradition of shooting on the beach, but this has declined in recent years because it is tricky to do this now, without being accused of being paedophile.

7. The black and white grainy photo.

Daido Moriyama is, if you like the Godfather of this school of photography, and he combined the imagery of Andy Warhol and William Klein to arrive at this groundbreaking photographic language. The subject is combination of cityscape and personal.

8. The New Rich.

Think Tina Barney and of course all those rich kids who attend Yale who turn their cameras on their own families. Nearly always shot in large format, and often involve taking clothes off too.

9. I am a poet.

This is the riskiest school of photography of all as it takes real panache to pull this one off. Many of the images can find their roots in the likes of Bill Eggleston and Rinko Kawauchi.

10. The modern Typology.

The Bechers and the Dusseldorf school have had a major impact on our photographic landscape and naturally the success of these students has also had a major impact. Many of the B division Becher students shoot typologies and run down buildings, beach huts, whatever can be found frequently.

11. The Staged photo.

With the increasing difficulty of shooting on the street and the desire to control the photo and the people in them, staging has found a new wave of popularity. Gregory Crewdson has given this genre a major boost with his Hollywood style, staged scenarios.

12. The Formal portrait.

One of the great traditions in photography and recently revived by the likes of Reneke Dijsktra and Thomas Ruff. Smiling is banned and this genre often needs the structure of repetition. A tripod is also a prerequisite for this method of shooting.

13. The long landscape.

Panoramic cameras are the latest fad for shooting landscapes, and a good view of icebergs and, or, fjords are a perfect subject for this treatment.

I could go on, but I think you will get the gist of what I am saying. I know many of you will now be thinking, “ What a cynic”, but firstly there is much work that falls into these categories that I really respond to, indeed nearly all the work I like could have a grouping that feature in my list. I think the point I am making is that we need to consider our subject matter more carefully. When I am looking through student folios I often say these things, and usually people look at me as if to say “how dare you question what I am shooting.”

But if we think of what is going on in our world, there seems to be many subjects which are avoided, because we all need that echo of familiarity to help us have the confidence to make a body of work. We want to emulate the impact that these images had on us, and this can be as restricting as it can be liberating.

Martin Parr  Nov 2010.

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  • LUKE LEUNG
  • 多謝你的分享,請給我續號,謝謝

  • 木頭人
  • 好多英文...
    太專業了~~~~
  • 可以看前半段是中文版;
    因為原作者是寫英文,所以我附上他原本的文字。

    FanFun 於 2015/12/01 10:48 回覆