Photographic Cliches by Martin Parr(轉貼)
translated by 任悅
1.高角度俯瞰人類(the above ground landscape with people)
這是最近一個流行，主要是從 Gursky 那裡發展出來。從一個高視點的地方框取人，把他們置於（淹沒在）城市也可能是郊區的景觀之中。
這個手法美國比較常見，他們那裡這種路燈很多。這是典型的城市風景，但正在變得沒落。這種流派可以追溯到 Stephen Shore 和其他一些人身上。
Nan Goldin的《性依賴的敘事曲》在這方面算是開了先河，隨後還有 Larry Clark 以及 Ed van der Elsken 這些人跟進。
#Nan Goldin http://www.artnet.com/artists/nan-goldin/
#Larry Clark http://larryclark.com/
#Ed van der Elsken http://www.edvanderelsken.nl/
4. 懷舊的目光（The Nostalgic Gaze ）
5. 怪異的以及非常視覺化的場景（the quirky and visually strong setting）
6. 街頭（the street）
7. 黑白的粗顆粒照片（The black and white grainy photo）
要是你認同，森山大道就是這個流派的教父。他把 Andy Warhol 和 William Klein 的影像表現糅合而形成了這種具有突破性的攝影語言。所拍攝的主題也是把城市景觀和個人情感結合。
8. 新貴（the new rich）
設想一下，這種流派就好比 Tina Barney 以及其他那些去耶魯讀書的有錢人家的孩子，學成歸來之後都把相機對準了自己的家庭。通常都是用大畫幅相機拍攝，而且經常有把衣服脫掉的場景。
#Tina Barney http://artblart.com/tag/tina-barney-the-ancestor/
9. 我是一個詩人（i am a poet）
這可能是最具冒險性的一個流派，因為它要把浮華去掉。這種影像可以在 Eggleston 和 Rinko Kawauchi 那裡找到根基。
10 現代類型學（the modern typology）
現在在街頭拍攝太難了，攝影師又有著控制被攝對象的願望，這種擺拍照片盛行一時。Gregory Crewdson 以他的好萊塢風格的大片佈景拍攝手法引領潮流。
12 標準照（the formal portrait）
曾經是我們的一個傳統，最近又重新流行起來，像 Reneke Dijsktra 和 Thomas Ruff 這些人拍肖像的方法，禁止微笑，並且需要一種重複出現的結構，拍的時候一定要有三腳架。
# Reneke Dijsktra http://www.tate.org.uk/art/artists/rineke-dijkstra-2666
13. 寬寬的風景（the long landscape）
::Original text in English::
The Fine Art and Documentary photographers take great pride in thinking themselves superior to the other main genres of photography, such as the family snap shooter or the amateur photographer, as personified by camera club imagery. However, after 30/40 years of viewing our work, I have come to the conclusion that we too are fairly predictable in what we photograph.
I include myself in this, and have been very careful to try and think of new territories to explore, but recognise that very often I also indulge in the list outlined below. I am aware of the basic rules, which dominate our work, and want to now attempt to group some of the more dominant strands of contemporary practice.
This core subject matter and approach is also constantly shifting and changing as new photographers arrive and have an impact on our accumulative photographic culture and language. I have a rapacious desire to look at new work and do this through books, magazines, and of course exhibitions. Most of the work I see is generic; in so far I can read the influences. It is when the inspiration and lineage is not clear that my attention is alerted. I used this as a guiding principal for the recent curating of the Brighton Photo Biennial, and made freshness of approach to the subject matter a major criteria for selection.
Let me try and outline the basic genres that can be found.
1. The above ground landscape with people.
This is a relatively recent development with the major influence of Gursky, being the starting point. You take a high vantage and place people within the frame setting them in a larger urban or even rural landscape.
2. The bent lamppost.
You see this a lot in the USA, where they are blessed with many bent lampposts. The scene is urban and generally quite run down. This can be traced back to Stephen Shore amongst others.
3. The personal diary.
Nan Goldin gave this genre a major boost with the famous “ Ballad of Sexual Dependency ” project, but there are predecessors with the likes Larry Clarke and Ed van der Elsken.
4. The Nostalgic gaze.
Photographers love to shoot a factory, a shop, a club or some institution that is about to close. We, of course, welcome and praise the sense of community that is threatened.
5. The quirky and visually strong setting.
In terms of documentary we are much more likely to see a project done on a circus than say, a petrol station. The simple reason is that photographers love shooting situations where there is an inherent visual quirk. So we see plenty of this type of subject such as mental hospitals and animal clinics.
6. The Street.
Street photography has evolved in recent years, with many more humourous scenarios now making the edit, and of course the shift to colour. In Britain we also have the great tradition of shooting on the beach, but this has declined in recent years because it is tricky to do this now, without being accused of being paedophile.
7. The black and white grainy photo.
Daido Moriyama is, if you like the Godfather of this school of photography, and he combined the imagery of Andy Warhol and William Klein to arrive at this groundbreaking photographic language. The subject is combination of cityscape and personal.
8. The New Rich.
Think Tina Barney and of course all those rich kids who attend Yale who turn their cameras on their own families. Nearly always shot in large format, and often involve taking clothes off too.
9. I am a poet.
This is the riskiest school of photography of all as it takes real panache to pull this one off. Many of the images can find their roots in the likes of Bill Eggleston and Rinko Kawauchi.
10. The modern Typology.
The Bechers and the Dusseldorf school have had a major impact on our photographic landscape and naturally the success of these students has also had a major impact. Many of the B division Becher students shoot typologies and run down buildings, beach huts, whatever can be found frequently.
11. The Staged photo.
With the increasing difficulty of shooting on the street and the desire to control the photo and the people in them, staging has found a new wave of popularity. Gregory Crewdson has given this genre a major boost with his Hollywood style, staged scenarios.
12. The Formal portrait.
One of the great traditions in photography and recently revived by the likes of Reneke Dijsktra and Thomas Ruff. Smiling is banned and this genre often needs the structure of repetition. A tripod is also a prerequisite for this method of shooting.
13. The long landscape.
Panoramic cameras are the latest fad for shooting landscapes, and a good view of icebergs and, or, fjords are a perfect subject for this treatment.
I could go on, but I think you will get the gist of what I am saying. I know many of you will now be thinking, “ What a cynic”, but firstly there is much work that falls into these categories that I really respond to, indeed nearly all the work I like could have a grouping that feature in my list. I think the point I am making is that we need to consider our subject matter more carefully. When I am looking through student folios I often say these things, and usually people look at me as if to say “how dare you question what I am shooting.”
But if we think of what is going on in our world, there seems to be many subjects which are avoided, because we all need that echo of familiarity to help us have the confidence to make a body of work. We want to emulate the impact that these images had on us, and this can be as restricting as it can be liberating.
Martin Parr Nov 2010.